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Click here for information about participle adjectives.

We can use participle clauses after a noun in the same way as relative clauses. This gives more information about the noun. We sometimes call this a 'reduced relative clause'.

1: A present participle (verb + ing) can be used in the same way as an active relative clause:

The man driving the car is a friend of mine.(= The man who is driving the car is a friend of mine).

The present participle can replace any active tense, not just the present continuous tense:

Lorries coming over the bridge have to lớn be careful of the wind.(= Lorries that come over the bridge have to be careful of the wind).Who was the girl wearing the red dress?(= Who was the girl who was wearing the red dress?).Students handing in their essays late will thua ten marks.(= Students who hand in their essays late will chiến bại ten marks).

Xem thêm: Thuyết Trình Về Bản Thân ❤️️ 15 Bài Văn Giới Thiệu Về Bản Thân Lớp 2

2: A past participle can be used in the same way as a simple passive relative clause:

We read the e-mail sent by the manager.(= We read the e-mail that had been sent by the manager).This vase, made in đài loan trung quốc in the 14th century, is very valuable.(= This vase, which was made in đài loan trung quốc in the 14th century, is very valuable).She only eats cakes made by her mother.(= She only eats cakes that are made by her mother).

3: 'Being + past participle' can be used in the same way as a continuous passive relative clause:

The poem being read by the actor was written by my brother.(= The poem that is being read by the actor was written by my brother).The strawberries being eaten at the wedding were grown in Scotland.(= The strawberries that are being eaten at the wedding…).

Things lớn notice:

1: We generally don't use perfect participles ('having + past participle') in this case.

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2: We can't use this kind of participle clause if we're talking about one finished kích hoạt which is not repeated:

Not: Who was the girl dropping the coffee?Instead, we use a normal relative clause:Who was the girl who dropped the coffee?

Try an exercise!Participle Clauses Exercise 1Participle Clauses Exercise 2


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