Conditionals In Reported Speech

     

Conditional tenses are used khổng lồ speculate about what could happen, what might have happened, và what we wish would happen. In English, most sentences using the conditional contain the word if. Many conditional forms in English are used in sentences that include verbs in one of the past tenses. This usage is rtruongsontay.comerred lớn as "the unreal past" because we use a past tense but we are not actually rtruongsontay.comerring lớn something that happened in the past. There are five main ways of constructing conditional sentences in English. In all cases, these sentences are made up of an if clause và a main clause. In many negative conditional sentences, there is an equivalent sentence construction using "unless" instead of "if".

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Conditional sentence typeUsageIf clause verb tenseMain clause verb tense
ZeroGeneral truthsSimple presentSimple present
Type 1A possible condition and its probable resultSimple presentSimple future
Type 2A hypothetical condition and its probable resultSimple pastPresent conditional or Present continuous conditional
Type 3An unreal past condition & its probable result in the pastPast perfectPerfect conditional
Mixed typeAn unreal past condition and its probable result in the presentPast perfectPresent contditional

The zero conditional

The zero conditional is used for when the time being rtruongsontay.comerred khổng lồ is now or always and the situation is real và possible. The zero conditional is often used to lớn rtruongsontay.comer to general truths. The tense in both parts of the sentence is the simple present. In zero conditional sentences, the word "if" can usually be replaced by the word "when" without changing the meaning.

If clauseMain clause
If + simple presentsimple present
If this thing happensthat thing happens.
If you heat iceit melts.
If it rainsthe grass gets wet.

Read more about how to lớn use the zero conditional.

Type 1 conditional

The type 1 conditional is used khổng lồ rtruongsontay.comer to the present or future where the situation is real. The type 1 conditional rtruongsontay.comers to a possible condition and its probable result. In these sentences the if clause is in the simple present, và the main clause is in the simple future.

If clauseMain clause
If + simple presentsimple future
If this thing happensthat thing will happen.
If you don"t hurryyou will miss the train.
If it rains todayyou will get wet.

Read more about how khổng lồ use the type 1 conditional.

Type 2 conditional

The type 2 conditional is used to lớn rtruongsontay.comer to a time that is now or any time, and a situation that is unreal. These sentences are not based on fact. The type 2 conditional is used khổng lồ rtruongsontay.comer to a hypothetical condition và its probable result. In type 2 conditional sentences, the if clause uses the simple past, và the main clause uses the present conditional.

If clauseMain clause
If + simple pastpresent conditional or present continuous conditional
If this thing happenedthat thing would happen. (but I"m not sure this thing will happen) ORthat thing would be happening.
If you went khổng lồ bed earlieryou would not be so tired.

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If it rainedyou would get wet.
If I spoke ItalianI would be working in Italy.

Read more about how khổng lồ use the type 2 conditional with the present conditional và how lớn use the present continuous conditional in type 2 conditional sentence.

Type 3 conditional

The type 3 conditional is used to lớn rtruongsontay.comer to a time that is in the past, and a situation that is contrary khổng lồ reality. The facts they are based on are the opposite of what is expressed. The type 3 conditional is used to rtruongsontay.comer to lớn an unreal past condition and its probable past result. In type 3 conditional sentences, the if clause uses the past perfect, và the main clause uses the perfect conditional.

If clauseMain clause
If + past perfectperfect conditional or perfect continuous conditional
If this thing had happenedthat thing would have happened. (but neither of those things really happened) ORthat thing would have been happening.
If you had studied harderyou would have passed the exam.
If it had rainedyou would have gotten wet.
If I had accepted that promotionI would have been working in Milan.

Read more about how to lớn use the type 3 conditional with the perfect conditional tense, & how lớn use the perfect continuous conditional in type 3 conditional sentences.

Mixed type conditional

The mixed type conditional is used to lớn rtruongsontay.comer to a time that is in the past, & a situation that is ongoing into the present. The facts they are based on are the opposite of what is expressed. The mixed type conditional is used khổng lồ rtruongsontay.comer to lớn an unreal past condition & its probable result in the present. In mixed type conditional sentences, the if clause uses the past perfect, and the main clause uses the present conditional.

If clauseMain clause
If + past perfect or simple pastpresent conditional or perfect conditional
If this thing had happenedthat thing would happen. (but this thing didn"t happen so that thing isn"t happening)
If I had worked harder at schoolI would have a better job now.
If we had looked at the mapwe wouldn"t be lost.
If you weren"t afraid of spidersyou would have picked it up and put it outside.

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Read more about how to use the mixed conditional.